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Cornucopia of Ottomania and Turcomania | Contact:mailmaviboncuk(at)gmail.com

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    Mavi Boncuk | Images from the ship's deployment to Constantinople

    See also:

    Averoff against "...the enemy of the Nation"


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    Mavi Boncuk |



    USS McFarland (DD-237/AVD-14) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for American Civil War sailor and Medal of Honor recipient John McFarland.

    McFarland was laid down 31 July 1918 and launched 30 March 1920 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation; sponsored by Miss Louisa Hughes; and commissioned 30 September 1920, Lieutenant CommanderPreston B. Haines in command.

    McFarland, having served a month with the Atlantic Fleet, departed for European waters 30 November 1920. For the next 2 months she operated in the English Channel, sailing for Gibraltar 31 January 1921. On 9 March she arrived at Split for a 4-month tour with the Adriatic Detachment. In July she continued eastward, and at Constantinople, on the 31st, joined ships of the Turkish Waters Detachment.

    Returning to the United States only once (8 July to 22 October 1922), McFarland remained in the Black Sea and eastern Mediterranean area until spring 1923. During that period she performed quasi-diplomatic and humanitarian roles necessitated by the aftermath of World War I. She cruised regularly to Black Sea and Anatolian ports, distributing American relief supplies to Russian, Greek, and Turkish refugees and providing transportation, mail, and communications facilities.


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    Mavi Boncuk |

    USS Sturtevant (DD-240) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War I. She was the first ship named for Albert D. Sturtevant.

    Sturtevant was laid down on 23 November 1918 and launched on 29 July 1920 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation; sponsored by Mrs. Curtis Ripley Smith; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 21 September 1920. Lieutenant Commander Ewart G. Haas assumed command of Sturtevant on 4 November 1920.

    On 16 June 1921, the destroyer was reassigned from the Adriatic detachment to the Constantinople detachment, and, three days later commenced docking and overhaul at Constantinople. During this assignment, Sturtevant conducted drills in the Sea of Marmara, between the twin straits, the Dardanelles and the Bosporus, and operated in the Black Sea. She visited Samsun, Turkey; Burgas, Bulgaria; and Sulina and Brăila on the coast of Romania. From 25 October to 28 November, she flew the flag of Admiral Mark L. Bristol. Following this duty, the ship visited the ports of Beirut and Jaffa and then Alexandria, Egypt, and the Isle of Rhodes. In late December, she returned to Turkey at Samsun, thence to Constantinople in January 1922, before reentering the Black Sea to visit southern Russia.

    From 1921 to 1923, the Russian Civil War and a drought brought a great famine to Russia, particularly to the usually food-rich Volga region of southern Russia. America responded with nearly 1,000,000 short tons (910,000 t) of food which the Bolshevik accepted, often as surreptitiously as possible. Sturtevant investigated potential ports of debarkation in southern Russia for the supplies soon to be shipped by the American Relief Administration. To this end, she visited Odessa, Sevastopol, Novorossiysk, Theodosia, and Yalta between early February and mid-April. Thereafter, through the end of the year, she made voyages across the Black Sea to various Russian ports in conjunction with the relief operation. She stopped at numerous other foreign ports on the voyages, including Samsun, Trebizond, and Mudania, Turkey. From July-October, she made a round-trip voyage back to the U.S., during which she was overhauled at the New York Navy Yard and exercised out of Yorktown, Virginia. On 1 October, Sturtevant was ordered back to the eastern Mediterranean and, the following day, got underway for Gibraltar. She arrived there on the 14th and continued on to Turkey, reaching Mudania on the 27th. For the next seven months, the destroyer visited the ports of the eastern Mediterranean and those along the coast of the Black Sea. In addition to ports of call of the previous cruises, she visited Varna, Bulgaria; Mersina and Smyrna, Turkey; Piraeus, Greece; and Naples, Italy. From the latter port, she sailed for Gibraltar in late May 1923, and by 12 June was back at the Navy Yard in New York.

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  • 01/10/14--13:24: Revolutionary Bandits
  • From February to November of 1906, California journalist Albert Sonnichsen made his way through the remnants of the Ottoman Empire, observing firsthand a country falling apart. Entrenched among a group of revolutionaries at war with the Greeks and Turks, he took special pleasure in seeking out the region's most notorious guerrillas (many of whom he captured in photographs).

    Mavi Boncuk | Pavlos Perdikas and other andart 1904-1908

    Portrait of greek revolutionary in Macedonia Pavlos Nerantzis - Perdikas[1]


    [1] Perdika (Greek: Πέρδικα; AlbanianArpicë) is a village and a former community in ThesprotiaEpirusGreece.

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    Mavi Boncuk |


    Architectural Design by: Mimarlar and Han Tümertekin

    MONGOLIAN EMBASSY SERVICE BUILDING

    The Republic of Turkey Ulan Bator Embassy Residence Building is the first step of the embassy buildings renovation project. It stands out as a design in which tradition meets modernity and will represent Turkish architecture abroad. The building is being made by materials that are unique to Turkey and also manifactured inland. It is designed as a location in which the Ulan Bator embassador will stay with his family during his term of office and also where the formal invitations will take place.  Both rough construction work and elobarate works are being done as well as electrical, mechanical installments.

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    Front Cover
    Mavi Boncuk | 

    The Americana supplementa comprehensive record of the latest knowledge and progress of the world, Volume 2 

    Janet Dailey Scientific American Compiling Dep't, 1911

    Where we find information about the Ottoman Empire under letter T as Turkey.


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  • 01/11/14--16:59: 1923 Leaving Constantinople
  • Mavi Boncuk |1923 Deutsche Levante-Line Leaving Constantinople 

    Die Deutsche Levante-Line AG (DLL)[1] 

    Founded in 1889 to operate services to the Eastern Mediterranean, North African and Black Sea ports. Experimental services between the Mediterranean and New York were operated between 1902 - 1904 but then ceased. In 1910 the company amalgamated with Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas and in the same year took over the fleets of A. C. de Freitas and the Adria Line from H. C. Horn. By 1912 the company owned 54 ships and by 1914 Albert Ballinn and HAPAG owned a controlling interest in the company. In Aug.1914 with the outbreak of the Great War, all services were suspended and those in German ports were laid up. The remainder either took refuge in neutral ports, were sunk or captured or taken over by allied Turkey. [2]

    After the end of the war, the company was obliged to surrender all their ships over 1,600 gross tons to the Inter Allied Shipping Commission as war reparations. By 1920 Deutsche Levante Line had disappeared as an independent company and became an integral part of HAPAG. In 1935 under a German Government system of rationalisation DLL separated from the parent company. In the later 1920s, North German Lloyd also became involved with DLL and even put some of it's ships under DLL colours and flag.
    SOURCE

    [1] German Deutsche Levante Linie, agent: Agelasto, Sfezzo & Co. Mehmet Ali Paşa Han, No. 41-42.The Levant Herald and Eastern Express’ and in a 1906 listing.
    [2] HUNGER AND MISERY IN CON STANTINOPLE.

    Marlborough Express, Volume L, Issue 122, 25 May 1916, Page 3



    Tenedos 1889 ex- Milano, 1902 purchased from Rob. M. Sloman, Hamburg renamed Tenedos, 1914 laid up at Constantinople, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul, 1915 sunk by British submarine off Akbash. 

    Aegina (1) 1906 1910 transferred from Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas to DLL, 1914 laid up at Smyrna, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul, 1915 scuttled as a blockship off Smyrna, later refloated repaired, 1919 allocated to Great Britain, 1920 renamed Izmir, 1921 sold to Gart Line, Glasgow renamed Gartland. 

    Derindje (1) 1912 1912 purchased from Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul, renamed Derince, 1914 sunk by Russian destroyers off Tirebolu. 

    Bosforos 1911 owned by Levante Kontor GmbH, Hamburg managed by DLL, 1913 transferred to DLL, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division renamed Bosforus, 1915 sunk by British submarine E 11 off Bandirma. 

    Bosporus (2) 1890 1924 taken over with Deutsche-Orient Line, Stettin, 1925 sold to Turkey renamed Nedjat. 

    Athos (2) 1891 ex- Marxburg, 1900 purchased from DGG Hansa Line, Bremen renamed Athos, 1914 seized by Russian Government at Mariupol, 1914 sunk by Turkish cruiser Midilli in Black Sea. 

    Eresos 1893 ex- Amerika, 1912 purchased from Argo Line, Bremen renamed Eresos, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division renamed Erezos, 1915 sunk at entrance of River Sakarya by Russian destroyer. 

    Greifswald 1902 1924 taken over with Deutsche-Orient Line, Stettin, 1924 sold to Turkey renamed Yelkendji Zade Riffat. 

    Kerkyra 1907 ex- Neuenstein, 1912 purchased from Seetransport, Hamburg by Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas managed by DLL renamed Keryra, 1913 purchased by DLL, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division, 1919 allocated to Britain, 1921 sold to Radnor SS Co., London. 

    Leros (2) 1906 ex- Hornsund, 1911 purchased from H. C. Horn renamed Leros, 1914 laid up at Constantinople, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul, 1915 sunk by British submarine, later salvaged and repaired, 1919 allocated to Roumania renamed Oituz. 

    Louise 1898 1911 purchased from C. Hirschberg, Hamburg, 1912 renamed Chios, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul renamed Kios, 1915 sunk by British submarine E 11 off Akbash in Marmara Sea. 

    Patmos 1902 1914 laid up at Constantinople, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul, 1916 mined and sunk, salvaged and in 1917 again in service, 1919 allocated to Great Britain, 1920 sold to Byron SS Co., London renamed Lord Broughton. 

    Rodosto 1903 ex- Helene Rickmers, 1912 purchased from Rickmers Line by Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas managed by DLL renamed Rodosto 1913 purchased by DLL, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division, 1916 captured by Russians renamed N 149, 1918 reverted to Germany renamed Rodosto, 1919 seized by France, 1920 sold to Italy. 

    Skyros 1896 ex- Leonis, 1899 purchased from Leonis SS Co., West Hartlepool renamed Skyros, 1914 laid up at Constantinople, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division Osmanli Seyrisefain Idaresi, Istanbul renamed Skiros, 1915 sunk by Russian destroyer Pronsitelnyi off Kilia. 

    Stambul (2) 1904 ex- Maria Rickmers, 1912 purchased from Rickmers Line by Bremer Dampferlinie Atlas managed by DLL renamed Stambul 1913 purchased by DLL, 1914 placed in Turkish sea transport division renamed Istanbul, 1918 back to Germany as wreck repaired reverted to Stambul, 1919 allocated to Britain, 1921 sold to the British Africa Steam & Coaling Co., Capetown renamed Cape Point.

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    As a fencer taking part in the Berlin Games in 1936, she was one of the first Turkish women participating in Olympic Games. 


    Mavi Boncuk | 

    Halet Çambel (Berlin 27 August, 1916 - Istanbul, January 11, 2014) was without a doubt the best known Turkish archaeologist. She was one of the most important researchers for primeval and ancient history and the most knowledgeable Turkish Hittite expert. 

    Halet was born as the third child of Hasan Cemil Çambel and Remziye Çambel. Her mother, Remziye Hanım, is the daughter of the former Grand Vizier and the current Turkish ambassador, Ibrahim Hakkı Paşa, in Berlin. Her father, Hasan Cemil Bey, is the Turkish military attaché for Germany and a good friend of Atatürk. After the First World War the family lives in Switzerland, Austria and Tyrol for some years, because of the treaty of Sèvres and the following occupation of the Ottoman empire. They are only able to return to Turkey after the founding of the Turkish republic.  

    Read more from the SOURCE

    On returning to Istanbul after the Olympics, she began her association with Nail Çakırhan, a Communist poet who became a celebrated architect. They were married for 70 years until his death in October 2008.

    After World War II she began studying with German professor Helmuth Bossert. She played a key role in the understanding of Hittite hieroglyphics by discovering a tablet with the Phoenician alphabet, which permitted philologists to decipher the inscription. In 1947 she and professor Bossert began excavating Karatepe, the walled city of 12th century BCE late Hittite king Azatiwadda, located in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey.

    Çambel has also been active in promoting the preservation of Turkey's cultural heritage. In the 1950s she resisted the government's attempt to move the artifacts from Karatepe to a museum. The government eventually agreed and in 1960 established an outdoor museum (with some buildings designed by her husband) on the site. She also fought efforts to dam the Ceyhan River, which would have flooded many archaeological sites. She was able to have the proposed water level reduced sufficiently to save the sites.


    In 2004 Çambel was one of the recipients of the Prince Claus Awards. The jury report cited her "for conducting rescue excavations of endangered heritage sites, introducing stone restoration and ensuring proper conservation of significant cultural heritage in Turkey," for founding a chair of prehistoric archaeology at Istanbul University, and "for her dedicated scholarship and for her unique role in expanding the possibilities for interaction between people and their cultural heritage."

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    map source

    Mavi Boncuk |

    NOMADIC EMPIRES OF THE EASTERN STEPPES by Ian Mladjov[1]
    See The lists of Eastern rulers

    From the 5th to the 9th centuries, Central and East Central Asia were dominated by a succession of nomadic confederations. These attempted to subdue their real or potential rivals and to extract revenues from the trade routes and settled societies nearby, ranging from the prosperous merchant cities along the Silk Road to the rich and powerful Chinese and Persian Empires. With the (often temporary) subjugation of multiple additional tribes by each new power, there emerged a relatively uniform imperial system. In it subjugated tribes retained significant measures of autonomy under native chiefs, but recognized the overarching authority of the hegemonic people, who were governed by a supreme ruler called first chanyu (traditionally written “shan-yü”) under the Xiongnu (Huns?), then qaġan or qa’an (“khan”) under the Rouran (Avars?) and their successors.

    In keeping with Chinese tradition, rulers were styled with both name and title, e.g., Muqankehan (Buqan Qaġan) or Moheshe (Baġa Šad). The most significant hierarchical grades of the Turks and, for the most  part, of their Uyġur successors are, in approximate descending order of importance: 

    1. qaġan or qa’an (kehan, “khaghan” or “khan”), the supreme authority, title sometimes shared with subordinates 
    2. yabġu (yehu), essentially a viceroy, but not in the direct line of succession 
    3. tegin (tejin or tele), crown prince, regardless of additional duties 
    4. šad (she), prince of royal blood, placed in charge of a particular territory or horde 
    5. ilteber (yilifa) and tudun (tutun), usually native tribal chiefs


    NOMADIC EMPIRES OF THE WESTERN STEPPES by Ian Mladjov[1] 
    See The lists of Western rulers 

    The history of the “barbarian” tribes that inhabited the western Eurasian steppes is, to say the least, imperfectly known, depending as it does almost exclusively on chance notices in the histories of neighboring societies, including the Roman Empire and the Islamic Caliphate and its successors. This is true for the various Scythian and Sarmatian tribes inhabiting the region in Classical Antiquity and for the Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, Pečenegs, and Cumans, who settled the area in the Middle Ages. We possess glimpses, at best, of the history of these peoples, which leaves even the general chronological outline. Moreover, there are indications that at least some of these peoples did not develop what we might call proper monarchies, i.e., states that, centralized or not, were ultimately ruled by a single supreme ruler. This is clearly the case with the Pečenegs and the Cumans, and perhaps with the early Huns (although with them the multiplicity of chieftains may reflect a common Central Asian model of hegemonic imperial practice).

    [1]Ian Mladjov, Instructor (Ph.D., University of Michigan, expected 2013), Research Associate at the Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Michigan, teaches undergraduate surveys in pre-modern world history and classes on Greek, Roman, and Medieval Mediterranean (Crusader) history. Additional areas of specialization include the Ancient Near East, Byzantium, and the Medieval Balkans, including Mythology and the history of religion. In addition to several articles in the areas of history and prosopography, he has contributed maps, genealogies, and other reference materials to various publications in related subjects. Further information and materials can be found on his personal webpage: http://www.sitemaker.umich.edu/mladjov/home

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    Baghdad Railway Concession was one of the triggers of Great War. This is one of the most important books on an era. Written almost as it happened.

    Mavi Boncuk | 

    Turkey, the great powers, and the Bagdad Railway : a study in imperialism (1923)

    Author: Earle, Edward Mead, 1894-1954 
    Subject: Baghdad Railway; Eastern question; Turkey -- Economic conditions 1918-1960
    Publisher: New York : Macmillan 
    Not in copyright 

    Read Online

    Download PDF  Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

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  • 01/14/14--10:13: Matossian Brothers of Tokat
  • Belgium 1928 20 pieces in Sliding Box Producer British-American Tobacco Co. (Belgium) Ltd. S.A.B. Trade Mark Owner Tabacs & Cigarettes Matossian [1]

    Mavi Boncuk |

    Egypt’s largest tobacco factory was founded by the Matossian brothers of Tokat, Turkey. Some 70,000 Armenians worked at the Matossian Tobacco factories. Between 1895-1896, 90% of Egypt’s cigarette production bore the trademark of Armenian owned factories[2]. In the first quarter of the 20th century, the Armenian tobacco industry expanded to such an extent that it dominated the markets of Egypt and Sudan, becoming the chief supplier of Ethiopia’s capital, Adis-Ababa, and other cities. 

    The 1961 nationalization program of President Gamal Abdel Nasser jolted the community, the majority of which was engaged in the private sector. The size of the community dwindled in that period, but not all felt compelled to leave, choosing instead to adapt to the new landscape. Among them was Joseph Matossian, then the chairman of Egypt’s Chamber of Tobacco. Nasser greeted Matossian with a hug at a cigarette exposition in 1961. Nasser, an ardent smoker of illegally smuggled Kents, said if Matossian could make him a similar cigarette, he would be their best client. “Mr. President, your wishes are our orders,” he replied, creating what is still Egypt’s most-consumed cheap cigarette, The Cleopatra.

    [1] In the tobacco sector, original Armenian brands like Davros, Arax, Marouf and Enfi were the only cigarette brands made in Belgium. Behind each of these names were Armenian families, mostly immigrants from Turkey, who had settled in Belgium at the turn of the 20th century. The Missirian, Tchamkertian, Matossian and the Enfiadjian families held a monopoly over the tobacco industry in the country. As more refugees poured into Belgium from Turkey after 1915, these families became the major employers. 

    [2] The development of a major cigarette industry in Egypt in the late nineteenth century was unexpected, given that Egypt generally exported raw materials and imported manufactured goods, that Egyptian-grown tobacco was always of poor quality, and that the cultivation of tobacco in Egypt was banned in 1890 (a measure intended to facilitate the collection of taxes on tobacco). One reason for the development of the industry was the imposition of a state tobacco monopoly in the Ottoman Empire, a measure designed to increase Ottoman government revenue. This resulted in the movement of many Ottoman tobacco merchants, usually ethnic Greeks, to Egypt, a country which was culturally similar to and was in fact arguably de jure a part of the Ottoman Empire but outside the tobacco monopoly as a result of its de facto occupation by the United Kingdom. 

    The founder of the industry was Nestor Gianaclis, a Greek who arrived in Egypt in 1864 and in 1871 established a factory in the Khairy Pasha palace in Cairo. After the British troops began being stationed in Egypt in 1882, British officers developed a taste for the Egyptian cigarettes and they were soon being exported to the United Kingdom. Gianaclis and other Greek industrialists such as Ioannis Kyriazis of Kyriazi frères successfully produced and exported cigarettes using imported Turkish tobacco to meet the growing world demand for cigarettes in the closing decades of the nineteenth century. 

    Egyptian cigarettes made by Gianaclis and others became so popular in Europe and the United States that they inspired a large number of what were, in effect, locally-produced counterfeits. Among these was the American Camel brand, established in 1913, which used on its packet three Egyptian motifs: the camel, the pyramids, and a palm tree. Tastes in Europe and the United States shifted away from Turkish tobacco and Egyptian cigarettes towards Virginia tobacco, during and after the First World War. What remained of the Greek-run tobacco industry in Egypt was nationalized after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Egyptian-made cigarettes were thereafter sold only domestically, and became known for their poor quality (and low price). Of all the many foreign imitations of Egyptian cigarettes, only Camel survived the remainder of the twentieth century.

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    LGBT Themed Turkish Literature | 1980-2003

    Mavi Boncuk |

    1980 ''Fena Halde Leman'' / Attilâ İlhan
    1981 ''Dersaadette Sabah Ezanları'' / Attilâ İlhan
    1984 ''Haco Hanım Vay'' / Attila İlhan
    1990 ''Bay Z Düşüncenin Cinselliği'' / Tufan Erbarıştıran
    1990 ''Kılavuz'' / Bilge Karasu
    1992 ''Leyla ile Şirin'' / Hülya Serap Doğaner
    1993 ''Düşlerin Şarkısı Yok'' / Veysel Dikmen
    1996 ''Şarlo, Bir Kara Kafa İçin Balad'' / Ahmet Haluk Ünal
    1997 ''Cemil Şevket Bey - Aynalı Dolaba İki El Revolver'' / Selim İleri
    1998 ''Cahide'' / Aysel Özdemir
    1999 ''Romantik Salgın'' / İbrahim Altun
    2000 ''Günahsız'' / İbrahim Altun
    2000 ''Solmaz Hanım ve Kimsesiz Okurlar İçin'' / Selim İleri
    2000 ''Sıvı'' / Turgut Yüksel
    2001 ''Hayat Roman'' / Turgut Yüksel
    2002 ''Bella'' / Stella Aciman
    2002 ''Ben Kendimi Affediyorum Tanrım Ya Sen?'' / Tijen Kino
    2002 ''Kilidi Sırlı Anahtar'' / Baki Koşar
    2002 ''Travesti Pinokyo'' / Sibel Torunoğlu
    2003 ''Kırlangıçların Ömrü'' / Stella Aciman
    2003 ''Deniz Kızı'' / Zeynep Aksoy
    2003 ''Sığınak'' / Sadık Aslankara
    2003 ''Üçüncü Tekil Şahıs'' / Mehmet Bilal
    2003 ''Zarife'' / Deniz Kavukçuoğlu
    2003 ''Kurtlu Elma Şekeri'' / Pınar Orhan Küzeci
    2003 ''Şimdilik Kadın'' / Emine Saraçoğlu
    2003 ''Jigolo Cinayetleri'' / Mehmet Murat Somer
    2003 ''Peygamber Cinayetleri'' / Mehmet Murat Somer
    2003 ''Buse Cinayetleri'' / Mehmet Murat Somer
    2003 ''Hergele Âşıklar'' / Niyazi Zorlu

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    Mavi Boncuk |

    Let’s note two events held in Ankara this week: the sixth annual Ambassadors Conference with a theme of “strong democracy, dynamic economy, effective diplomacy,” and the German Marshall Fund’s conference, “Turkey’s Foreign Policy Reset.” While the former sends a message of absolutism about the current path of Turkey’s foreign policy, the latter simply suggests it needs restoration. The gap between these two perceptions seems unbridgeable.



    Full Article

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    Mavi Boncuk |

    The Sixth Annual Ambassadors Conference was inaugurated with the opening remarks by Foreign Minister Davutoğlu

    The Sixth Annual Ambassadors Conference was inaugurated with opening remarks by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ahmet Davutoğlu, on January 13, 2014 in Ankara.

    Highlighting that the theme of this year’s Conference is determined as “Strong Democracy, Dynamic Economy, Effective Diplomacy”, Foreign Minister Davutoğlu stressed that Turkey has been going through an era of restoration for the last 10 years, in this vein, the theme of the Conference points at the three dimensions of this restoration.

    Foreign Minister Davutoğlu said that philosophic basis of strong democracy is to accept that an individual has the capacity to demonstrate will, otherwise democracy cannot function. Foreign Minister Davutoğlu added “Human dignity gains value only if it is equally valid for each individual. Turkish foreign policy does not contain any step or any initiative conflicting with human dignity.”

    Noting that states whose economies are not dynamic are forced to maintain their dignity, Foreign Minister Davutoğlu recalled that Turkish people has witnessed significant developments in the economic field during the last ten years and Turkey goes beyond the international standards on profit sharing and paid off its debt to IMF.

    “Effective diplomacy is esteemed diplomacy” said Foreign Minister Davutoğlu underlining that in the sake of rationalism, diplomacy which is not able to advocate human dignity cannot succeed.

    Within this framework Foreign Minister Davutoğlu maintained that Turkey’s effective diplomacy has four pillars and the first one is the strategic relations of Turkey with the EU. “Turkey’s membership to the EU is also an added value for the EU itself. In this regard, we attach importance to the opening of the Chapters 23 and 24 as soon as possible” Foreign Minister Davutoğlu said.

    Foreign Minister Davutoğlu stated that the second pillar of the effective diplomacy is Turkey’s relations with the countries in the region and pointed out that Turkey has developed good relations in all fields with regional countries such as the Balkans countries, Greece and Russia. He emphasized that with the High Level Strategic Councils established during the last ten years, Turkey’s trade volume with its neighbors has increased tenfold.

    Explaining that the third pillar of the effective diplomacy is new opening areas, Foreign Minister Davutoğlu names Africa, Asia and Latin America as the new opening regions. “Turkey is one of the most represented countries in Africa. Africa will be the rising continent of the 21st century. Already now, we should be active in every field in Africa” noted Foreign Minister Davutoğlu.

    Mentioning that the last pillar of the effective diplomacy is Turkey’s work within the international organizations, Foreign Minister Davutoğlu said “We have become a candidate for UN Security Council in a short time following our tenure in the Security Council. We will work hard for the seat. We also aim to make İstanbul a UN center”.

    Concluding his remarks, Foreign Minister Davutoğlu underlined that Turkish Foreign Ministry which carries out an effective diplomacy which is based on a strong democracy and a dynamic economy deserves appreciation.



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    Mavi Boncuk |
    Article by H.E. Mr. Ahmet Davutoglu, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey published in Foreign Policy magazine (USA) on 15 November 2013

    With The Middle East in Crisis, U.S. and Turkey Must Deepen Alliance

    From Syria to Iran, regional stability depends on Washington and Ankara's continued cooperation.

    As I prepare to visit Washington next week, I disagree with the perception that United States and its Middle Eastern allies are growing apart. The truth is, in Turkey's case, our two countries have long been close allies and will remain partners going forward. In today's ever more complex and fluid international environment -- with Syria in crisis and much of the Middle East in flux -- the U.S.-Turkish relationship remains vital for a sustainable regional and global order.

    The partnership between the United States and Turkey is value-based, founded upon universal principles of fundamental rights and democratic norms. Turkey promotes these values in its neighborhood and encourages its Western partners to uphold them as well. Alignment with the West during times of crisis, such as the Arab Spring, is testament to how deeply such shared values are embedded in the genesis of our foreign policy. On that ground, the United States and Turkey do not have the luxury of remaining aloof or apart from each other; our joint work has proven indispensable to regional security and stability. As a result, we have diversified our cooperation with the United States in areas ranging from counter-terrorism and non-proliferation to defense cooperation, energy security, know-how transfer, and more.

    Turkey's leading role in transatlantic institutions is the primary pillar of its foreign policy. As the euro crisis gives way to recovery and consolidation, we believe that Turkey can play a more constructive role in shaping the future of Europe. Recently, the EU membership process has been reenergized by the opening of a negotiation chapter, among other things, and there are signs of progress towards liberalizing the visa regime for the Turkish citizens travelling to the EU. NATO, meanwhile, stands as the cornerstone of Turkish security policy and our security cooperation -- from the Balkans to Central Asia -- continues to form a bulwark against instability in the broader region. Yet, nothing would anchor Turkey in the Western world more than our future association with the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership -- an initiative that would be greatly enriched by Turkey's participation.

    In the Middle East and North Africa, both Turkey and the United States face an increasingly chaotic geopolitical environment. The tensions we are witnessing in this region -- which is overwhelmingly identified with human suffering, political and sectarian conflicts, and threats to global order -- initially grew out of popular uprisings for dignity, legitimacy, and prosperity. As a result, they should also be viewed as the birth pangs of an inescapable normalization. The people on the streets have set in motion a powerful transformative process. Any return to the old regional order is now inconceivable, and those who have tried to resist change will find themselves on the wrong side of history.

    The future of the region will not be determined by strongmen with dictatorial illusions, but by legitimate and visionary leaders. United by a common belief in peoples' right to a decent life, Ankara and Washington share the very same objectives when it comes to engaging with the Middle East. We have both sided with the new collective consciousness in the region -- one that prioritizes good governance in its struggle against authoritarianism.

    As a keen supporter of President Barack Obama's multilateral approach to diplomacy, Turkey has also welcomed his recent engagement with Iran. The possibility of a diplomatic settlement of the dispute over Iran's nuclear program raises hopes for peace and stability in the region. Turkey has been among the few to actively pursue such a course and will continue to advocate this crucial initiative. The resuscitation of the peace process in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict may also help restore the regional order's legitimacy and sustainability.

    In Syria, progress toward the elimination of Bashar al-Assad's chemical weapons is a step in the right direction, but there is still more to be done. Turkey will continue to extend its full support to the Syrian people until a political transition is achieved and the rule of cruel despotism comes to an end. We will not become casualties of the ongoing psychological war that in vain tries to identify the Syrian people's legitimate resistance with the dark forces of terrorism.

    Despite our many and early warnings about the radicalization of the Syrian opposition, the international community has so far failed to deliver a just and decisive settlement. Yet, even counting the attempts of extremist groups to step into the political void, there is no greater threat to Syria and its people than Assad and his anachronistic rule. Let us not forget that it was the cruel despotism of this regime that triggered the current conflict in the first place.

    As the political transformation gets underway in our neighborhood, the main challenge in years ahead will be to establish a sustainable regional order. Turkey and the United States have worked closely together at critical junctures in the past. In the years following the end of the Cold War, we both contributed to the stabilization of regional hotspots, such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon. Today, we share the new collective consciousness urging good governance and democratic accountability in our part of the world. This awareness should form the basis of a strong U.S.-Turkish partnership as we work to deal with the urgent challenges in this era of global transformation.

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    Mavi Boncuk | 

    Denialism: Petition against the rogue decision of the European Court of Human Rights The European Court of Human Rights (Strasbourg, France) ruled on December 17, 2013 that Dogu Perinçek (president of the Workers’ Party ,Turkey) could not be condemned for publicly stating (in Genevea, Switzerland in 2007) that the “so- called Armenian genocide is an imperialist lie.” In the struggle against Turkish denial of the Armenian Genocide, the Coordination Council of Armenian Organizations of France (CCAF) has launched the following petition asking Switzerland to appeal that judgment. We believe that this petition should go around the world and secure the required 100,000 signatures, because if the judgment is not invalidated it could put an end to Armenian claims against the denial of Armenian genocide. 

     PETITION 

     In a decision of 17 December 2013, which will remain an absolute disgrace in the history of the European Court of Human Rights, this jurisdiction which has never so little deserved its name, decided to give reason to Dogu Perincek, the zealous and determined denier of the Armenian Genocide by proposing to condemn Switzerland for its infringement of freedom of 

    Co-founder of the Talaat Committee (the Turkish “Hitler”), a backroom created by Ankara to export the denialist theses of Turkey to Europe and beyond, Dogu Perincek had appealed against a decision pronounced by the Swiss courts, fining him twice for his denialist 

    At present imprisoned in Turkey for taking part in the attempted coup by the Ergenekon organization (which did not prevent Ankara from defending him before the ECHR in this particular case), Dogu Pericenk had indeed claimed that the “Armenian Genocide” was an “international lie” at a series of meetings in Switzerland. 

    These statements, offensive against the memory of the victims and defamatory against their descendants, were condemned under the Swiss law on the repression of denialism. The European Court of Human Rights, to which he had appealed, is therefore considering condemning Switzerland, in the name of an inconsequential reading of the freedom of expression and a restrictive interpretation of human dignity. This jurisdiction, in a judgment that is just as irresponsible as it is grotesque, thus gave its support to the denialist propaganda on the Armenian Genocide. And this in accordance with the following arguments : 

    1) There would not be any consensus on the facts since only about twenty of the 190 States have recognized them (whereas the international community of historians having seriously dealt with this issue is unanimous on their qualification as genocide and that a number of lobbies, including that of the Turkish government, repeat that it is not for the Parliaments to legislate on history...). 

    2) There has not been any international judgment qualifying them (whereas the Treaty of Sèvres signed in 1920 by the European Powers provided for the Judgment of the persons responsible for this crime against humanity, treaty replaced in 1923 by that of Lausanne in which these same European Powers, in an attitude typical of Munich before its time, were to abandon any idea of rendering Justice to the Armenian people in the name of new relations with Kemalist Turkey). 

    3) The notion of genocide would remain unclear and therefore offer scope for debate (whereas the crime of genocide is clearly established by the Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court and that the very concept of genocide was forged by Raphaël Lemkin, starting precisely from the extermination of the At one year from the commemorations for the hundredth anniversary of this crime against humanity, as it was named on 24 May 1915 by France, England and Russia at a time when the word genocide had not yet been created, the ECHR has just assassinated the one and a half million victims of the “Young Turk” government for the second time. And this following an unfair trial in which only the Turkish party was able to plead, while the Armenian party and those who defend its universal just cause were not invited to the proceedings. 

    Switzerland, which, in addition, decided on 10 October to reinforce its strategic partnership with Turkey, has until 17 March to lodge an appeal against this unfair judgment which, in sentencing it, also opens the road to an unbridled propagation of denialism. Through this petition, we should like to call on the Swiss authorities to lodge an appeal against this judgment before the Grand Chamber of the ECHR and, in so doing, allow an open debate to be held and a fair trial on a essential issue for our times and our European identity, by giving other States, including France, the possibility of being heard. 

    Furthermore, such an appeal would allow the Armenian party, excluded from the hearing until now, to be equally represented with Turkey, which would bring a minimum balance to this “justice” which, until now, has only been based on one side of the scales. 

     Thank you for joining this campaign Conseil de Coordination des organisations Arméniennes de France.

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    Mavi Boncuk |

    1925-2013 | Foreign Movies Run Through Turkey 
    Exhibition on a selection of posters of foreign films in several languages about Turkey made between 1925 and 2013 has opened in Istanbul.

    Exhibition on a selection of posters of foreign films in several languages about Turkey made between 1925 and 2013 has opened in Turker Inanoglu Vakfi (TURVAK) Cinema-Theatre Museum in Turkey's Istanbul city.    

    Poster Exhibition, "Foreign Films about Turkey", is featuring the visual memory of both fifty-four films from American, European, Australian, Hong Kong and Scandinavian cinema and four co-productions of Erler Film-Turker Inanoglu.

    "We made a wide research in the archives and examined the cinema history. We think the exhibition will attract the attention of cinema-lovers," coordinator of the exhibition, Asli Yilmazsoy, said. 

    The exhibition includes different genres of cinema of world history such as Karl XII[1] (1925), Secret of Stamboul (1936), Journey into Fear (1943), The Mask of Dimitrios (1944), The Lady with a Lamp (1951), Five Fingers (1952), Orient Express (1954), Istanbul (1957), Abenteurer am Bosphorus (1962), From Russia with Love (1963), America, America (1963), Topkapi (1964), Istanbul Express (1968), The Charge of the Light Brigade (1968), Medea (1969), You Can't Win 'Em All (1970), Murder on the Orient Express (1974), Gallipoli (1981), Intimate Power/The Favorite (1989), Zombie and the Ghost Train (1991), The World is not enough (1999) and Skyfall (2012).

    Since 1925, Turkey's several cities, its history, culture, the multifaceted structure and its exotic atmosphere in the view of the West are reflected widely in these movies, consisting more of spying and adventure movies. 

    The exhibition will remain open to public visit until February 28 in TURVAK Exhibition Hall

    [1] John W. Brunius in 1925 directed the film Charles XII (Karl XII), photographed by Hugo Edlund and starring Gösta Ekman AS kARL Xii, Pauline Brunius and Mona Martenson. Its screenplay was written by Hjalmar Bergman and Ivar Johansson. Many of the scenes of Brunius' film were shot on the actual historical locations and battlesites, it having had been being one of the most expensive films to have been made in Sweden up untill that time.


    MORE FOR THE CURIOUS: VOLTAIRE S HISTORY OF CHARLES TWELFTH 

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    Defter: from Arabic daftar دفتر TR yazı tableti from Aramaic dipterā דפתרא a.a. ~ oldGR diphthéra διφθέρα 1. treated skin as leather, 2. yazı tableti olarak kullanılan kesilip perdahlanmış deri tabakası oldTR  tepter (Uyghur) possibly from Aramaic or middle Persian

    Danişmend-Name 1360 ed. Necati Demir,Harvard UP 2002. Yunus Emre, Hayatı ve Bütün Şiirleri[14. yy?]ed. Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, MEB 1941; T. İş B. 2006. Saraylı Seyf,Gülistan Tercümesi [1391](Toparlı et. al. Kıpç Sözl. içinde). Erzurumlu Darir (çev.), Kıssa-i Yusuf 1377 1994. andan soŋra kaḍi ˁaskerler, andan soŋra defterdarlar ve defterdarlardan aşağ yeniçeri ağası»Fatih Sultan Mehmed,
    Kanunname-i Al-i Osman 1481

    Parchment: Parchment was developed in Pergamon, from which name it is believed the word "parchment" evolved as a substitute for papyrus, which was temporarily not being exported from Alexandria, its only source.Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BCE; and in his Histories (v.58) he states that the Ionians of Asia Minor had been accustomed to give the name of skins (diphtherai) to books; this word was adapted by Hellenized Jews to describe scrolls. 

    Parchment, however, derives its name from Pergamon, the city where it was perfected (via the Latin pergamenum and the French (parchemin). In the 2nd century BCE a great library was set up Pergamon that rivalled the famous Library of Alexandria. As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes “district” of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment. 

    Vellum: early 15c., from O.Fr. velin "parchment made from calfskin," from vel, veel "calf" (see veal). veal (n.) late 14c., from Anglo-Fr. vel, from O.Fr. veel "a calf" (Fr. veau), earlier vedel, from L. vitellus, dim. of vitulus "calf," perhaps originally "yearling," if related, as some think, to Skt. vatsah "calf," lit. "yearling;" Goth. wiþrus, O.E. weðer (see wether; wether O.E. weðer "ram," from P.Gmc. *wethruz (cf. O.S. wethar, O.N. veðr, O.H.G. widar, Ger. Widder, Goth. wiþrus "lamb"), lit. "yearling," from PIE root *wet- "year" (cf. Skt. vatsah "calf," Gk. etalon "yearling," L. vitulus "calf," lit. "yearling"). 


    One sort of parchment is vellum, a word that is used loosely to mean parchment, and especially to mean fine parchment, but more strictly refers to parchment made from calfskin (although goatskin can be as fine in quality). The words vellum and veal come from Latin vitulus, meaning calf, or its diminutive vitellus. In the Middle Ages, calfskin and split sheepskin were the most common materials for making parchment in England and France, while goatskin was more common in Italy. During the seventh through the ninth centuries, many earlier parchment manuscripts were scrubbed and scoured to be ready for rewriting, and often the earlier writing can still be read. These recycled parchments are called palimpsests.



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    Mavi Boncuk |

    Şerbet:  from AR Şariba EN to drink.[1] Şerbet, şarap  and şurup, To Western languages from Turkish.


    Syrup:
    1392, from O.Fr. sirop (13c.), and perhaps from It. siroppo, both from Arabic sharab "beverage, wine," lit. "something drunk," from verb shariba "he drank" (cf. sherbet). Sp. jarabe, jarope, O.Prov. eissarop are from Arabic; It. sciroppo is via Medieval Latin, Latin as written and spoken c.700-c.1500.. sirupus.


    Sorbet: 1585, "cooling drink of fruit juice and water," from Fr. sorbet, probably from It. sorbetto, from Turk. serbet (see sherbet). Meaning "frozen dessert, sherbet" first recorded 1864.

    Sorbet (pronounced /sɔrˈbeɪ/) is a frozen dessert made from sweetened water flavored with iced fruit (typically juice or puree), chocolate, wine, and/or liqueur. The origin of sorbet is variously explained as either a Roman invention, or a Middle Eastern drink charbet, made of sweetened fruit juice and water. The term sherbet or charbet is derived from Turkish: şerbat/şerbet, "sorbet", from the Persian sharbat, which in turn comes from the Arabic شربات sharbāt meaning "drink(s)" or "juice."

    Granita (in Italian also granita siciliana) is a semi-frozen dessert of sugar, water, and flavorings originally from Sicily, although available all over Italy (but granita in Sicily is somewhat different from the rest of Italy). Related to sorbet and italian ice, in most of Sicily it has a coarser, more crystalline texture.  Frozen desserts are believed to have been brought to France in 1533 by Catherine de' Medici when she left Italy to marry the Duke of Orleans, who later became Henry II of France. By the end of the 17th century, sorbet was served in the streets of Paris, and spread to England and the rest of Europe.

    Sorbet is often confused with Italian ice or water ice, and it is often taken to be the same as sherbet. In US American usage, sorbet and sherbet are distinctly different products. For Americans, sherbet (alternatively spelled sherbert) is the more widely-known term and typically designates a fruity flavored frozen dairy product with a milkfat content less than 3%. Sorbet, on the other hand, is considered by Americans to be a fruity frozen product with little to no dairy content, similar to Italian ice. In the UK, sherbet refers to a fizzy powder, and only the term sorbet would be used.


    Sherbet: c.1600, zerbet, "drink made from diluted fruit juice and sugar," from Turk. serbet, from Pers. sharbat, from Arabic sharba(t) "a drink," from shariba "he drank." Related to syrup.

    The word "Sorbet" (pronounced /sɔrˈbeɪ/, /ˈsɔrbɨt/, or /sɔrˈbɛt/) is French (French pronunciation: [sɔʀˈbɛ]) for the Persian word "Sherbet". Sorbets/sherbets may also contain alcohol, which lowers the freezing temperature, resulting in a softer texture.

    Agraz: is a type of sorbet, usually associated with the Maghreb and north Africa. It is made from almonds, verjuice, and sugar. It has a strongly acidic flavour, because of the verjuice. (Larousse Gastronomique)


    [1] Meyve suyu ile şekerli su karıştırılarak yapılan içecek: “Biraz sonra gümüş bir tepsi içinde ahududu şerbeti getirdiler.” -A. Haşim. 2. Belli törenlerde konuklara sunulan şekerli içecek: “Gelin hanım, köşesine yerleştirildikten sonra şerbetler dağıtılmaya başladı.” -E. İ. Benice.

    LOĞUSA ŞEKERİ içinde karanfil, baharat ve şekerciboyası bulunan, baklava biçiminde kırmızı şeker.



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    Nazim Hikmet as a Navy Cadet

    Mavi Boncuk |

    We the city of Istanbul
    We saw the call to arms:
    Caucasus, Galicia, Gallipoli, Palestine
    Black market, typhus and Spanish flu
    And the Unionists, and the long flapped German boots
    914 to 918 consumed us to oblivion

    Biz ki İstanbul şehriyiz,
    Seferberliği görmüşüz:
    Kafkas, Galiçya, Çanakkale, Filistin,
    Vagon ticareti, tifüs ve İspanyol nezlesi
    bir de İttihatçılar, bir de uzun konçlu Alman çizmesi
    914’ten 918’e kadar yedi bitirdi bizi."

    Nazim Hikmet


    Nâzım Hikmet Ran (15 January 1902 – 3 June 1963), commonly known as Nâzım Hikmet was a Turkish poet, playwright, novelist and memoirist. 

    Scientists want to exhume the body of a British diplomat who died of Spanish flu during the 1919 pandemic in hopes of discovering clues to fight possible future global outbreaks. Sir Mark Sykes, best known for his work dismantling the Ottoman Empire, was buried in a lead-lined coffin, which may have preserved enough human tissue to yield useful information on how he died and the nature of the avian flu that killed him. An aristocratic, well-traveled and talented linguist, Sykes was chosen to draw up the British half of a secret agreement to divide the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire into French and British spheres of influence, drawing lines which would eventually coalesce into the borders of Iraq, Syria and Israel. Sykes later returned to the Middle East to try to secure an understanding among French, British and Arab officials there, a marathon effort which taxed his endurance, Sykes' biographer Roger Adelson said. "He'd spent weeks burning the midnight oil trying to get these factions to agree, but he didn't succeed," Adelson said, adding that Sykes had lost weight, "so he was very vulnerable." Sykes traveled to Paris in early 1919, and he died soon afterward.

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